Political Questions

Questions About EVM

  • What is meant by Tampering of EVM?
    Tampering means alteration in the software program written either on existing
    microchips of Control Unit (CU) or introducing malicious software program by
    inserting new microchips in CU and also making keys - pressed in Ballot Unit (BU)
    not record faithfully in the Control Unit.
  • Are the ECI- EVMs hackable?
    M1 (model one) of EVM machines were manufactured till 2006 and had all
    necessary technical features making M1 non-hackable contrary to claims made by
    some activists.
    On the recommendations of the Technical Evaluation Committee in 2006, M2
    model of EVMs produced after 2006 and upto 2012 incorporated dynamic

    Ballot Unit (BUs) to Control Unit (CUs), in an encrypted form as an additional
    security feature. It also contains Real time setting of each key press so that
    sequencing of key presses including so called malicious sequenced key presses can
    be detected and wrapped.
    Further, the ECI- EVMs are not computer controlled, are stand alone machines
    and not connected to the internet and /or any other network at any point of time.
    Hence, there is no chance of hacking by remote devices.
    The ECI-EVMs do not have any frequency receiver or decoder for data for wireless or
    any external hardware port for connection to any other non-EVM accessory or
    device. Hence no tampering is possible either through hardware port or through
    Wireless, Wi-Fi or Bluetooth device because CU accepts only encrypted and
    dynamically coded data from BU. No other kind of data can be accepted by CU.

  • Can ECI-EVMs be manipulated by Manufacturers?
    Not Possible.
    There is very stringent security protocol at manufacturer level regarding security of
    software. The Machines have been manufactured in different years starting from
    2006. After manufacturing, EVMs are sent to State and district to district within a
    State. The manufacturers are in no position to know several years ahead
    which candidate will be contesting from a particular constituency and what
    will be the sequence of the candidates on the BU. Also, each ECI-EVM has a

    find out from its database which machine is located where. So, any manipulation at
    manufacturing stage is ruled out.

  • Can Trojan Horse be incorporated into the chip in CU?
    Sequence of voting in EVM eliminates the possibility of injection of Trojan Horse as
    mentioned below. The stringent security measures by ECI make it impossible to
    introduce Trojan Horse in the field.
    Once a ballot key is pressed in CU, the CU enables BU for registering the vote and
    waits for the key pressing in the BU. During this period, all keys in the CU become
    Inactive till the entire sequence of casting of that vote is complete. Once any of the
    keys (candidates vote button) is pressed by a voter in BU, the BU transmits the key
    information to CU. The CU gets the data and acknowledges it by glowing the

    the other buttons that is of no use as there will not be any communication between
    CU and BU as the result of those subsequent key presses, nor will BU register any
    key press. To put it in other words, there can be only one valid key press (the first
    key press) for every ballot enabled using CU. Once a valid key press (voting process)
    is complete, until another ballot enabling key press is made there will not be any
    activity between the CU and the BU. Hence, sending of any malicious signal, by way

    being used in the country.

  • What are the latest technological features to make ECI-EVMs tamper proof?
    The ECI-EVMs use some of the most sophisticated technological features like
    one time programmable (OTP) microcontrollers, dynamic coding of key codes,
    date and time stamping of each and every key press, advanced encryption
    technology and EVM-tracking software to handle EVM logistics, among others
    to make the machine 100% tamper proof. In addition to these, new model M3
    EVMs also have tamper detection and self-diagnostics as added features. Since,
    software is based on OTP the program cannot be altered, re-written or Re-read.
    Thus, making EVM tamper proof. If anyone make, attempt, the machine will become
    in operative.
  • .Do the ECI-EVMs use foreign technology?
    Contrary to misinformation and as alleged by some, India do not use any EVMs
    produced abroad. EVMs are produced indigenously by 2 PSUsviz. Bharat
    Electronics Ltd., Bengaluru and Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., Hyderabad.
    The Software Programme Code is written in-house, by these two companies, not
    outsourced, and subjected to security procedures at factory level to maintain the
    highest levels of integrity. The programme is converted into machine code and only

    producing semi-conductor microchips within the country.
    Every microchip has an identification number embedded into memory and the
    producers have their digital signatures on them. So, the question of their
    replacement does not arise at all because microchips are subjected to functional
    tests with regard to the software. Any attempt to replace microchip is detectable and
    can make EVM in-operative. Thus, both changing existing programme or
    introducing new one are detectable making EVM in-operative.

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