Needs for the society are ever evolving, if the constitution does not keep pace, it will become redundant or will lead to breakdown of law and order.

The constitution of India is the supreme law of the country. It was adopted on 26th January 1949 by the constituent assembly. The assembly constituted of 389 members and took 2 years, eleven months and eighteen days to be completed. The chairman of the drafting committee was Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar. The constitution declares India as a sovereign, social, secular, democratic republic which assures its citizens equality, justice and liberty.

The constitution has twenty two parts, twelve schedules and five appendixes. There are a total of 101 amendments (Tax Reform act GST Article 246A, 269A, 279-A). The 123rd amendment seeks to grant constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward classes is not yet passed by the parliament.

The Indian constitution is said to be a living constitution as it is flexible and changes can be made according to the need of time. Steps have to be followed for amendments under part-article 368(1).

Below are some of the important amendments done till date-

  1. Abolition of states according to classes and introduction of Union Territories and reorganization of states by language (1956)

This amendment came into effect the same time in 1956 as the seventh amendment. This amendment classified states based on language and boundaries reducing the complexity and thus abolishing categorizing states based on per capita income.

  1. The mini -constitution (42nd amendment) inserted Socialism and Secularism in the preamble, a provision on fundamental (1976)

The main reason of adopting this amendment was to remove the dominance of the rich on the country’s economy and on the poor. Secularism was introduced to make India a secular country by giving every religion equal status and by not declaring India as a specific religion country.

  1. Right to property deleted from the fundamental list (1978)

Just like amendments can be introduced, rules and law through the same amendment can also be removed. This was the 44th amendment. This was carried out by the government at that time since it was not affluent   enough to pay people whatever they demand for their land.

  1. Introduction of Nagarpalikas and Municipalities (1993)

The seventy fourth amendments’s made in the constitution because the local bodies were ineffective in holding elections, maintenance of several buildings etc. It has given constitutional status to the municipalities and brought them under the justifiable part of the constitution.

  1. Free and compulsory education to children between the age of 6 to 14 years

The 86th amendment of the constitution stated every child between the age of 6-14 years has the right to free and compulsory education (2009).  Under this, the government schools shall give free education to the children and private schools must reserve 25% seats for economically backward children free of cost  with the help of government funding. The government schools will be managed by School Management Committee (SME).

  1. Introduction of the Goods and Service Tax(GST) to present the idea of One Nation, One Tax (2016)

This is the 101st amendment done in the constitution . In this, the consumers are not subjected to multiple/double taxation.  All the taxes will be comprising of both central and state government. This amendment was done because of the increasing taxation.


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